The etiology of rheumatoid arthritis comprises of three factors: (a) infection caught through bacterias like androgen and mycoplasma appear to have a low virulence. In periarticular and particular parts of immunocompromised hosts, destruction and inflammation are caused. Also, in the laboratory studying these infections is quite difficult. (b) Few studies have been conducted about the primary androgen created by the human adrenal cortex. This androgen is basically a deficit of DHEA (dehydro-epi-androsterone). (c) For standard immunity, cortisol is essential.
Cortisol is basically an ordinary adrenocortical hormone and has a moderately minor deficiency; however, due to its sturdier byproducts or its use of disproportionate doses, a bad reputation has been achieved by it. Rheumatoid arthritis primarily affects individuals of middle age between the ages of forty to sixty. However, it can occur at any age. In comparison to men, women are more likely to suffer from this disease. It can also be caused due to factors such as obesity, environmental exposures, smoking, and family history.
It is quite difficult to diagnose rheumatoid arthritis in its early stages since its symptoms and signs are quite minimal in comparison to other diseases. For confirmation of the diagnosis, no physical findings or blood tests are present. However, a physical examination will be preferred by the doctor, and the joints will be checked for warmth, redness, and swelling. Other than this, the strength of muscles and reflexes of the patient will also be checked. However, with respect to blood tests, an elevated CRP (c-reactive protein) or (sed rate or ESR – erythrocyte sedimentation rate) may be found in the case of patients suffering from this disease.
Also, to track the progress of the disease, X-rays might be recommended by the doctor. The severity of the disease can be checked through ultrasound tests and MRI by the doctor. Other than this, several laboratory tests can be carried out in order to confirm the diagnosis: joint fluid tests, muscle biopsy, skin biopsy, Lyme serology, c-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, HLA tissue typing, uric acid, anti – CCP (cyclic citrullinated peptide), RF (rheumatoid factor), ANA (antinuclear antibody).
In the medical community, some necessary clinical tools that can be used to diagnose rheumatoid arthritis are a physical examination, and special tests like synovial fluid analysis, arthroscopy, and joint aspiration. Other than this, the doctors may consider imaging, i.e., X-rays, laboratory testing, and medical history. Besides this, the doctors may also use check medical history of the patient and will carry out different surveys including RAPID 3 – Routine assessment of patient index data, ACR 20 – American College of Rheumatology 20, CDAI – clinical disease activity index, DAS 28 – disease activity score for 28 joints, and HAQ – health assessment questionnaire.