Essay on Production Phase in Oil and Gas

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The production phase in oil and gas is the next phase after drilling, and it is initiated once the desired depth is attained and potential hydrocarbon-bearing rocks are drilled. In this phase, the hydrocarbon fluids are brought up to the surface.

Various equipment is installed in this phase for the production, separation, transportation and storage of oil and gas. Generally, most of the oil and gas are driven to the Earth’s surface through the wells’ intrinsic pressure.

However, the rate of flow of hydrocarbons depends upon various factors, including the oil/gas ratio, the viscosity of oil, the properties of reservoir rock, pressure conditions beneath the Earth’s surface and the temperature of the target area.

Production Phase in Oil and Gas

Some factors, such as pressure and oil/gas ratio, do not remain constant throughout production.With time, the natural driving pressure of hydrocarbons decreases, which in turn reduces the production of commercial quantities of hydrocarbons.

Various artificial lift techniques are applied to maintain the pressure of the reservoir. These techniques include injection of water and gas to supply additional pressure and pumping mechanisms.

Nowadays, the injection wells are drilled parallel to the production wells so that gas and water can be injected in the early times of production to enhance the recovery of oil and natural gas, optimize the production rates and maintain hydrostatic pressure.

Apart from these, the other techniques used to stimulate oil and gas production include hydraulic fracturing and acid treatment.

Both these techniques enhance production by enlarging the flow channels. Upon reaching the surface, the hydrocarbons are directed toward the production facility for further processes.

Type and Size

The installations’ type and size typically depend upon the selected export option, the nature and the type of hydrocarbon fluids and the nature of the reservoir. The hydrocarbon fluid that flows to the surface from the wellbore is a mixture of water, gas and oil.

The production facility particularly installed these three components of hydrocarbon fluid. Removing any dissolved gas from the oil before it is distributed is essential.

Likewise, removing hazardous components such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from the produced gas is essential.

Various routine operations on the producing wells include maintenance tasks, security programs and episodic servicing of downhole using work over a rig or a wireline unit.

The primary recovery mechanism can only retrieve a small portion of oil and gas. The remaining oil and gas reserves are produced through a secondary recovery mechanism that includes gas injection and water flooding.

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